From Discrimination to Demotivation: Analyzing the Linkages between Gender Disparity, Harassment, and Employee Motivation


  • Irfan Ali University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Hassan Ali University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Sarfraz Ali Malak University of Sindh Jamshoro, Campus Dadu Pakistan
  • Amanullah Samoon University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan


Gender disparity, harassing behaviour, employee motivation, workplace environment


Gender discrimination and harassing behavior have evolved as the complex phenomena in today’s multicultural diverse organizations. This gender based inequality affects employees’ motivation and is a heavy cost to the organization in the form of higher turnover ratio, less productivity and profitability. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship and effect among gender disparity, harassing behavior and employee motivation & enthusiasm. This study checks the applicability of the organizational justice theory and Adam’s equity theory. Using quantitative research approach, cross-sectional method and convenience sampling, data was collected from 385 workers comprising white collar and blue-collar ones working in various sectors in all provinces of Pakistan. The data were analyzed using PLS SEM technique in SMART PLS. The findings of this study indicate that both the factors i.e., gender disparity and harassing behavior decrease employee motivation and enthusiasm in the workplace. Moreover, the findings depict a picture of the impact of discrimination and harassing behavior on employees’ motivation & enthusiasm in the form of cost and loss to the organization’s productivity. The study’s findings would support the government, policymakers, and business owners in devising the policies to make a conducive workplace environment free from discrimination and any kind of harassment so that the employees may work diligently for the benefit of their organization.


Adams, J. S., & Freedman, S. (1976). Equity theory revisited: Comments and annotated bibliography. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 9(C), 43–90.

Ali, F. (2011). Sexual harassment in Pakistani organizations.

Ali, F., & Kramar, R. (2015). An exploratory study of sexual harassment in Pakistani organizations. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32(1), 229–249. https://

Babin, B. J., Hair, J. F., & Boles, J. S. (2008). Publishing research in marketing journals using structural equation modeling. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(4), 279–286.

Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., Samoliuk, N., & Mishchuk, V. (2020). Gender discrimination and its links with compensations and benefits practices in enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 8(3), 189–204.

Channar, Z. A. (2010). GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN WORKFORCE THROUGH STICKY FLOOR & GLASS CEILING EFFECTS: A STUDY OF PUBLIC & PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS OF PAKISTAN A Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management. Sciences-New York.

Cojuharenco, I., & Patient, D. (2013). Workplace fairness versus unfairness: Examining the differential salience of facets of organizational justice. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(3), 371–393. https://doi.


Dharmawardhane, I. M., & Navaratne, N. N. J. (2019). Gender Discrimination against Female Managers and Professionals in Sri Lankan Private Sector. Asian Business Review, 9(2), 57–64.

Ensher, E. A., Grant-Vallone, E. J., & Donaldson, S. I. (2001). Effects of perceived discrimination on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and grievances. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(1), 53–72.<53::AIDHRDQ5>3.0.CO;2-G

FAO. (2023). Pakistan at a Glance.

Gilbert, G. L., & Walker, D. H. T. (2001). Motivation of Australian white-collar construction employees: A gender issue? Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 8(1), 59–66.

Greenberg, J. (1987). A Taxonomy of Organizational Justice Theories. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 9–22.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Matthews, L. M., & Ringle, C. M. (2016). Identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity with FIMIX-PLS: part I – method. European Business Review, 28(1), 63–76.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121. EBR-10-2013-0128

Hausmann, R., Tyson, L. D., & Zahidi, S. (2022). Global Gender Gap Report 2011: Insight Report. In World Economic Forum. WEF_GGGR_2022.pdf

Heilman, M. E., & Caleo, S. (2018). Combatting gender discrimination: A lack of fit framework. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 21(5), 725–744.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.


Imadoğlu, T., Kurşuncu, R. S., & Çavuş, M. F. (2020). The Effect of Glass Ceiling Syndrome on Women’s Career Barriers in Management and Job Motivation. HOLISTICA – Journal of Business and Public Administration, 11(2), 85–99.

Iqbal, N., Ahmad, N., Haider, Z., Batool, Y., & ul-ain, Q. (2013). Impact of performance appraisal on employee’s performance involving the Moderating Role of Motivation. Oman Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and

Management Review, 3(1), 37–56.

Klap, R., Darling, J. E., Hamilton, A. B., Rose, D. E., Dyer, K., Canelo, I., Haskell, S., & Yano, E. M. (2019). Prevalence of Stranger Harassment of Women Veterans at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and Impacts on Delayed and

Missed Care. Women’s Health Issues, 29(2), 107–115.

Kline, E., Wilson, C., Ereshefsky, S., Tsuji, T., Schiffman, J., Pitts, S., & Reeves, G. (2012). Convergent and discriminant validity of attenuated psychosis screening tools. Schizophrenia Research, 134(1), 49–53. schres.2011.10.001

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607–610.

Magley, V. J., Bauerle, T. J., & Walsh, B. M. (2016). Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. In Risky Business: Psychological, Physical and Financial Costs of High Risk Behavior in Organizations (pp. 239–262). https://doi.


Merkin, R. S., & Shah, M. K. (2014). The impact of sexual harassment on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and absenteeism: Findings from Pakistan compared to the United States. SpringerPlus, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.


Moradeke, F. T. (2014). Gender differences in perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment in the workplace. Global Journal of Management and Business, 1(2), 36–44.

Nauman, B., & Abbasi, A. S. (2014). Sexual harassment at workplace... A case of banking sector in Lahore. Middle - East Journal of Scientific Research, 20(5), 558–566.

Quah, J. S. T. (2016). The role of the public bureaucracy in policy implementation in five ASEAN countries. The Role of the Public Bureaucracy in Policy Implementation in Five ASEAN Countries, 33(3), 1–487. https://doi.


Ramzy, O., Bedawy, R. El, & Maher, A. (2018). Dysfunctional Behavior at the Workplace and Its Impact on Employees’ Job Performance. International Journal of Business Administration, 9(4), 224.


Schuberth, F., Rademaker, M. E., & Henseler, J. (2023). Assessing the overall fit of composite models estimated by partial least squares path modeling. European Journal of Marketing, 57(6), 1678–1702.

Stamarski, C. S., & Son Hing, L. S. (2015). Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6.

SteelFisher, G. K., Findling, M. G., Bleich, S. N., Casey, L. S., Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Sayde, J. M., & Miller, C. (2019). Gender discrimination in the United States: Experiences of women. Health Services Research, 54(S2), 1442–1453.

Tâm, T., Và, N. C. Ứ U., Giao, C. Ể N., Ngh, C., & Chu, Ẩ N B Ụ I. (2016). No Title No Title No Title. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 6(11), 951–952.


Teo, T. (2011). Towards greater precision in latent construct measurement: What’s

the Rasch? British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), E122–E124.

Thiele, K. O., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2016). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall:

A Comparative Evaluation of Six Structural Equation Modeling Methods.

Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing

Science, 45(5), 991–992.

Tradding Economics. (2021). Pakistan - Labor Force, Total. https://tradingeconomics. com/pakistan/labor-force-total-wb-data.html

Vinzi, V. E., Trinchera, L., & Amato, S. (2010). PLS Path Modeling: From Foundations to Recent Developments and Open Issues for Model Assessment and Improvement. Handbook of Partial Least Squares, 47–82. https://doi.


Vu, T. M., & Yamada, H. (2018). Decomposing Vietnamese gender equality in terms of wage distribution. Pacific Economic Review, 23(5), 705–731. https://

Weston, R., & Gore, P. A. (2006). A Brief Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 719–751.




How to Cite

Ali, I., Ali, H., Malak, S. A., & Samoon, A. (2024). From Discrimination to Demotivation: Analyzing the Linkages between Gender Disparity, Harassment, and Employee Motivation. IBT- JOURNAL OF BUSINESS STUDIES, 19(2), 146–163. Retrieved from