Reporting of Kashmir Conflict in Elite press of Pakistan. A Descriptive Analysis

Haseeb ur Rehman warrich, Nazia Rehman, Durre Shehwar

Abstract


The study attempts to analyze the coverage of Jammu and Kashmir conflict through peace and war journalism along with understanding how the ideals of peace journalism can be translated into conflict reporting. The descriptive analysis of news stories published from August 5, 2019 to Dec 5, 2019 in the mainstream contemporary English press of Pakistan (Dawn and The Nation) and India (Times of India and The Hindu) is carried out through content analysis. The time period is significant because of the scrapping of Article 370 and its violent effects on the region.  The approach of peace and war journalism is explored through in-depth interviews of Pakistani and Kashmiri journalists. The study concluded that both Pakistani and Indian press employed war framing more dominantly than peace framing while reporting Kashmir conflict. A higher instance of peace journalism was recorded in the Pakistani press in comparison to the Indian press. The ideals of peace journalism can be achieved by not justifying human rights violations and by refraining from becoming part of propaganda paradigm.


Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


Ahmed,M,Philips, R., &Berlinger, J. (2016, Sep 19) Soldiers killed in army base attack in Indian administered Kashmir. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2016/09/18/asia/india kashmir-attack/index.html

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verson

Ashiq, P. ( 2016, August 22). 14% of pellet gun victims in Kashmir are below 15. The Hindu. Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/14-of pellet gun victims-in-Kashmir-are-below-15/article14583549.ece

Ashiq, P. (2015, September 11). Cow slaughter ban: From Kashmir down, the pot boils over. The Hindu. Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/cowslaughter ban from Kashmir-down the-pot-boils-over/article76388

Aslam, R. (2014). The role of media in conflict: Integrating peace journalism in the journalism curriculum (Doctoral dissertation, Auckland University of Technology).

Aslam, R. (2010). Perspectives on conflict resolution and journalistic training. R. Keeble, J. Tulloch, and F. Zollmann, Peace, Journalism, War and Conflict Resolution. New York: Peter Lang, 337.

Bar-Tal, D. (2000). From Intractable Conflict Through Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation: Psychological Analysis. Political Psychology, 21 (2), 351-365

Bell, M. (1998). The journalism of attachment. In K. Matthew (Ed.) Media ethics, (pp. 15-22). London: Routedge

Bose, S (2003), Kashmir: Roots of conflict, paths to peace, Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Brosius, H. & Weimann, G. (1996). Who sets agenda? Agenda-setting as a two-step flow. Comminication Research, 23(5), 561-580

Bukhari, S. ( 2016, July 11). Why the death of militant Burhan Wani has Kashmiris up in arms. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-36762043

Bukhari,S. &, Masroor, R. (2016, April 4). Mehbooba Mufti: Kashmir's first woman chief minister. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india 30585105

Carruthers, S. (2000). The Media at War: Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. London: Macmillan

Cheema, M. J. (2015). Pakistan-India Conflict with Special Reference to Kashmir. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 45.

Dasgupta, P. (2016, July 11). Was Burhan Wani And Why Is Kashmir Mourning Him? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.in/burhan-wani/who was burhan wani and-why-is-kashmir-mourning-him

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means: The Transcend method. UN.

Galtung, J. (1998). After Violence: 3R, Reconstruction, Reconciliation, Resolution. Coping With Visible and Invisible Effects of War and Violence.Princeton, NJ: TRANSCEND.

Galtung, J. (1986). On the role of the media in worldwide security and peace. Peace and communication, 249-266.

Galtung, J. (1985). Twenty-five years of peace research: Ten challenges and some responses. Journal of Peace Research, 22(2), 141-158.

Hanitzsch, T. (2004). Journalists as peacekeeping force? Peace Journalism and Mass Communication Theory, Journalism Studies, 5 (4), pp.483-495

Howard, R. (2003). Conflict Sensitive Journalism. Copenhagen: International Media Support and Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society.

Indian Express. (2016, October 13). Jammu and Kashmir: Three months, 1,000 eye injuries by pellets. Retrieved from http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news india/jammu kashmir-pellets-burhan-wani-3079819/

Khurshid,T. (July 25, 2016). Fifth Generation Intifada in Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK). Institute of Strategic Studies. Issue Brief. Retrieved from http://issi.org.pk/wp

Lynch & McGoldrick (2005), Peace Journalism, Gloucestershire: Hawthorn Press

Lynch, J. & Galtung, J. (2010). Reporting Conflict: new directions in peace journalism. Australia: University of Queensland Press

Malik, A. (August 15, 2019). Viewpoint: Why Modi's Kashmir move is widely supported in India. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-49354697

Manoff, R. K. (1998). Telling the Truth to Peoples at Risk: Some Introductory Thoughts on Media and Conflict. The Legitimacy of Intervention for Peace by Foreign Media in a Country in Conflict (2-4 July, 1998).

Manoff, R. K. (1997). The media’s role in preventing and moderating conflict. Crossroads Global Report, 24-27.

Maslog, C. C., Lee, S. T., & Kim, S. H. (2006). Framing Analysis of a Conflict: How Newspapers in Five Asian Countries Covered the Iraq War, Asian Journal of Communication, 16 (1), 19-39

McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public opinion quarterly, 36(2), 176-187.

McGoldrick, A., & Lynch, J. (2000). The peace journalism option. Available from the Conflict and Peace Forums Web site. org.

Moeller, S. D. (2004), Media coverage of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Sehgal, R. (2011). Kashmir conflict: Solutions and demand for self-determination.

Sonwalkar, P . (2005). Banal Journalism: The centrality of the ―us-them binary in news discourse‘ in Allan, S (ed), Journalism: Critical Issues. Berkshire. Open University Press, pp. 261-273

Sreedharan, C. (2009). Reporting Kashmir: an analysis of the conflict coverage in Indian and Pakistani newspapers (Doctoral dissertation, Bournemouth University).

Tehranian, M. (2002). Peace Journalism: negotiating global media ethics. Harvard International Journals of Press/Politics, 7(2), pp. 58-83.

The Indian Express (2016, May 28) . BJP bats for establishment of Sainik Colony in Kashmir. ( 2016, May 28). Retrieved from http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news india/mehbooba-mufti-jammu kashmir-sainik-colony-bjp-national-secretary shrikant sharma-kashmiri-pandits-2823664/

Wolfe, T. & Johnson, E,W. (1990). New Journalism, Basingstoke: Picador

Wolfsfeld, G. (2004). The Media and Path to Peace, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Yong, T. T. (2000). Kudaisya. Gyanesh: The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia.

Yousaf, Z.,Yousafzai, F.U. & Ali, E. (2013). Coverage of Pak-India Relations in the Elite Press ofPakistan. Journal of International Institute for Science, Technology and Education, 3(17), 18-23

Zaheer, L. (2017). Editorial Coverage of Kashmir Conflict in Pakistani Media. Pakistan Vision, 18(1).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Journal of Media & Communication byILMA Universityis licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work athttp://jms.ilmauniversity.edu.pk/index.php/jmc.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available athttp://jmc.ilmauniversity.edu.pk/

Copyright ILMA University 2020. All right reserved.

The articles that are published in the journals are distributed under CC BY NC SA license. Users can distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon our articles, even non-commercially, as long as they are credited for the original creation. License Creative Commons.