Emotional Intelligence Framework (EQF): An Integrative approach towards universal definition of EQ

Faryal Razzaq

Abstract


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is considered to be an important attribute to succeed at top level of management and is a distinguishing factor among top performing employees at workplace. However, the variance in literature points towards the gap of the discrepancy in the elements of EQ models entailing to work towards a holistic, multilevel and sequential model. To address afore said discrepancies, a humble effort is made to present a revised comprehensive framework of EQ. A detailed theoretical analysis for EQ dimensions helped to identify the domain of new Contents for the existing construct of EQ which were regrouped into three constructs of Emotional Appreciation (EA), Emotional Application (EL) and Emotional Maturity (EM). The proposed Model disambiguate EQ as exhaustibly as possible in a hierarchical and sequential manner to allow reasoning about their property working towards an integrated framework of all the elements of influential EQ models as suggested by practitioners. The proposed model will be a valuable tool for managers and academia as it incorporates all the dimensions of EQ and present a logical hierarchical model and is a modest attempt to work towards a universal definition of EQ.


Full Text:

PDF

References


. Schutte et al, N. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 167-177.

Abraham, R. (2000). The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence–Outcome Relationships. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 2(132), 169-184.

Adam, J., Khan, H. T., & Raeside, R. (2014). Reserach Methods for Bussiness and Social Sceinces Students (2nd ed.). California: Sage Publications inc.

Al-Fatah. (2016, July 11). Al-Fatah. Retrieved from Alfatah : https://www.alfatah.com.pk/

Alvesson, M., & Deetz, S. (2000). Doing critical management research.

Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ashkanasy, N., & Daus, C. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are vastly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 441-52.

Augier, M. (2013). The early evolution of the foundations for behavioral organization theory and strategy. European Management Journal(31), 72– 81.

Austin, E. J., Saklofske, D. H., & Egan, V. (. (2005). Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 547–558.

Baig, S. (2012, December 18). The Futute of Retailing in Pakistan. Retrieved from Bussiness recorder.

Ballard, E. (1997). Art and analysis.

Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. .

Bar-On, R. (1997a). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: a measure of emotional intelligence. Toronto.: Technical Manual, Multi-Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (1997b). Developmet othe Bar-On EQ-i: a measure of emotional and socialintelligence. Chicago, IL: 105th annual convention of the American Psychological Association.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i. In R. Bar-On, & J. D. Parker, Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 363-388). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bar-On, R. (2002). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (2013). A broad definition of emotional-social intelligence according to the Bar-On model. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from www.reuvenbaron.org: http://www.reuvenbaron.org/wp/37-2/

Bartholomew, D., Knotts, M., & Moustaki, I. ). (2011). Latent variable models and factor analysis: A unified approach. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Batool, S. (2009). Development and Validation Of Emotional Intelligence Scale and Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Marital Quality. Lahore, Pakistan: Department of psychology & applied psychology, university of the Punjab.

Bear, M. (1996). long term depression in hippocampus. annual review of neuroscience.

Becker, T. (2003). Is emotional intelligence a viable concept? Academy of manegement review, 192-195.

Beer, M., & Spector, B. (1984). Human resources management: The integration of industrial relations and organizational behavior. In K. Rowland, & G. Ferris (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management (Vol. 2). Stamford: JAI P.

Bentler, P. (1990). Comparitive fit indexes in structural models. Psychological bulletin, 588-606.

Bishop, S., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N., & Carmody. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230-242.

Blackmore, J. (2011). Lost in translation? Emotional intelligence, affective economies, leadership and organizational change. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 43(3), 207-225.

Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develope executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Pshycology: Practice and Research, 59(3), 209-219.

Bowers, K. (1973). situationism in psychology: An analysis and a critique. psychological review.

Boyatzis, R. (1994). Stimulating self-directed change: A required MBA course called Managerial Assessment and Development. Journal of Management Education,, 304-323.

Boyatzis, R. (1994). Stimulating self-directed change: A required MBA course called Managerial Assessment and Development. Journal of Management Education, 304-323.

Boyatzis, R. E., & Sala, F. (2004). The emotional competence inventory (ECI). In G. Geher, Measuring Emotional Intelligence. Nova Science Publishers.

Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & & Rhee, K. S. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence. In R. Bar-On, & J. D. Parker, The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, and assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 343-362). San Francisco,CA: Jossey-Bass.

Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (1999). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). In R. Bar-On, & &. J. Parker, Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.

Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. . Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1147-1158.

Brown, F. W., Bryant, S. E., & Reilly, M. D. (2006). Does emotional intelligence – as measured by the EQI – influence transformational leadership and/or desirable outcomes? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(5), 330-351.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Browne, M., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen, & J. Long, Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury park CA: Sage.

Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Caruso, D. (2003). Defining the inkblot called Emotional Intelligence‟ Issues and Recent Developments in Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from ei Consortuim: http://www.eiconsortium.org

Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (. (2004). The Emotionally Intelligent Manager. san francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cattell, R. B. (1966). The screen test for the number of factors. Multivariate behavioral research, 245-257.

Cherniss, C. (2005, April). Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters. Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New Orleans, LA.: Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Child, D. (1990). The essentials of factor analysis (2 ed.). london: cassel education.

Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y., & Caput, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539-561.

Collins, R. (2004). Interaction ritual chains. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Comrey, A. (1973). A first course in factor analysis.

Conte, J. M. (2005). A Review and Critique of Emotional Intelligence Measures. Journal of organizational Behaviour, 26(4), 433-440.

Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, S. P. (2006). Business Research Methods (9th ed.). NY: McGraw Hill-Irwin.

Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1996). Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in leadership and Organizations. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group.

Costello, A., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best Practices in Exploratory Factor Analysis: Four Recommendations for Getting the Most From Your Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(9), 1-9.

Cote et al, S. L. (2010). Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The leadership Quaterly, 496-508.

Côté, S., & Miners, C. T. (2006, March). Emotional Intelligence, Cognitivr Intelligence, andJob Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 1-28.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Reserach Design (3rd ed.). New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Reserach Design (3rd ed.). New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd.

Cronbach, L. J. (1960). Essentials of psychological testing (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.

Cronbach, L. J. (1960). Essentials of psychology testing. Newyork : Harper.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological bulletin, 281-302.

CSD. (2014). About us. Retrieved 1 22, 2014, from http://www.csd.gov.pk: http://www.csd.gov.pk

Cua et al, K. (2001). Relationships between implementation of TQM,JIT, and TPM and manufacturing performance. Journal of operations manegement, 675-694.

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York.

Danciu, E. L. (2010). Methods of developing children’s emotional intelligence. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences , 5, 2227–2233.

Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of emotions in man and animals. New York: Oxford Press.

Daus, C. S., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2005). The Case for the Ability-Based Model of Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 453-466.

Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. (1998). Emotional intelligence: in search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015.

Day, A. L. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Rhetoricand reality. . In G. Gehe, Measuring emotional intelligence (pp. 219-241). New York: Nova Science Publishers, inc.159.

Deloitte;PlanetRetail. (2011). 'Hidden Heroes - The Next Generation of Retail Markets. Deloitte;PlanetRetail.

Derntl, B., Habel, U., Robinson, S., Windischberger, C., Kryspin-Exner, I., Gur, R. C., & Moser, E. (2009). Amygdala activation during recognition of emotions in a foreign ethnic group is associated with duration of stay. Social Neuroscience, 4(4), 294-307.

Descartes, R. (1649). Les passions de l’âme. (J. Bennett, Trans.) Livre de Poche.: LGF.

Devellis, R. F. (2012). Scale develpment Theory and Application (3 ed.). (L. Bickman, & D. J. Rog, Eds.) Los Angeles, USA: Sage.

Diggins, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: the key to effective performance and to staying ahead of the pack at times of organizational change. Human Resource Management International Digest, 33-45.

Dimitriades, Z. S. (2007). Managing emotionally intelligent service workers Personal and positional effects in the Greek context. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(3), 223-240. doi:10.1108/03090590710739296

Dulewics, V., & Goleman, D. (2000). Emotional intelligence – A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15, 341-372.

Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999). Can emotional intelligence be measured and developed? Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 20(5), 242-52.

Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999). Can emotional intelligence be measured and developed?”. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 20(5), 242-252.

Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999b). Can emotional intelligence be measured and developed? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 19(5), 242-252.

Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional intelligence – A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(4), 341-372.

Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (2000a). EIQ-Managerial User Guide. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M., & Slaski, M. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence: content, construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(5), 405-420.

Dyer, C. (2012). Reserach in Psycholgy: A practical guide to Methods and Statistics. New Delhi: Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

Dyer, C. (2012). Reserach in Psychology: A practical Guide to Methods and Statistics. New Delhi: Wiley India Pvt Ltd.

Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed. New York: Henry Holt.

Ellinger, A. (2004). The concept of self-directed learning and its implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(2), 158-77.

Emmerling, R., & Goleman, D. (2003). Emotional intelligence: issues and common misunderstandings. Issues in Emotional Intelligence, 1-32.

Evans, V. P. (1999). Higher-Order Factor Analysis: An Introductory Primer. Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association. San Antonio, TX: Southwest Educational Research Association.

Fararah, F. S., & Al-Swidi, A. K. (2013). The Role of the Perceived Benefits on the Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Study on the Islamic Microfinance and SMEs in Yemen Using PLS Approach. Asian Social Science, 9(10). doi:10.5539/ass.v9n10p18

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Fields, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics USING SPSS : And sex and drugs and rock ’n’ roll (3rd ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

Finance Division GoP. (2016). Pakistan Economic Survey. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Reading MA: Addison- Wesley.

Fisher, C. D., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2000). The emerging role of emotions in work life: An introduction. Journal of Organisational Behaviour(21), 123-129.

Fleishman, E., & Harris, E. (1962). Patterns of leadership behaviour related to employee grievances and turnover. Personnel Psychology, 15, 43-56.

Forgas, J. P., & George, J. M. (2001). Affective influences on judgments and behaviour in organisations: An information processing perspective. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 1(86), 3-34.

Fornaciari, C. J., Sherlock, J. J., Ritchie, W. J., & Lund, K. (2005). Scale development practices within the msr domain: an assessment of the literature from 1996-2004. Academy of Management Conference 2005.

Fowler, F. J. (2014). Survey Research Methods (5 ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. NY: Harper-Collins, New York.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Geher, G., & Renstorm, K. L. (2004). Measurement issues in emotional intelligence research . In G. Geher, Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Common ground and controversy (pp. 3-19). New York: Nova Science Publisher, Inc.

George, J., & Brief, A. (1996). Motivational agendas in the workplace: the effects of feelings on focus of attention and work motivation. In B. a. Staw, Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: Jai press.

Ghaffar-Kucher, A. (2015). Race Ethnicity and Education. Narrow-minded and oppressive’ or a ‘superior culture’? Implications of divergent representations of Islam for Pakistani-American youth, 18, 202-224. doi:0.1080/13613324.2014.889111

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence: issues in paradigm building. In C. a. Cherniss, he Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups and Organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gorsuch, R. (1983). Factor analysis. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gragg, P. (2008). From Theory to Practice Operation Emotional Intelligence. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 2-3(27), 241-153.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labour. Journal of Occupational Helath Psychology, 1(5), 95-110.

Gray, B. T. (97). Higher-Order Factor Analysis. The Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (p. 22). Austin,TX: Southwest Educational Research Association.

Greenvalley. (2016, January 15). Greenvalley premium hypermarket. Retrieved from Greenvalley premium hypermarket: www.greenvalley.pk

Groves, K. S., McEnrue, M. P., & Shen, W. (2008). Developing and measuring the emotional intelligence of leaders. Journal of Management Development, 27(2), 225-250. doi:10.1108/02621710810849353

Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). RSVP: we are pleased to accept your invitation. american journal of evaluation, 15(2), 179-192.

Gul, A., & Humphreys, G. W. (2014). Cultural effects in emotion and gender recognition. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 70–80. doi:10.1111/ajsp.12039

Habing, B. ). (2003). Exploratory Factor Analysis. Retrieved may 10, 2004, from stat.sc.edu: http://www.stat.sc.edu/~habing/courses/530EFA.pdf

Haidt, J., & Keltner, D. (1999). Culture and expression: open-ended methods find more expressions and a gradient of recognition. Cognition and emotion, 225-266.

Hair et al, J. (1998). Multi-variate Data analysis. NJ: Prentice hall.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1995). Multivariate data analysis. (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Hall, E. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday.

Haque, S. T., & Mohammad, S. N. (2013, November). Administrative Culture and Incidence of Corruption in Bangladesh: A Search for the Potential Linkage. International Journal of Public Administration, 36(13), 996-1006.

Hareli, S., & Rafaeli, A. (2008). Emotion cycles: On the social influence of emotion in organisations. Research in Organisational Behaviour,(28), 35-59.

Hashemi, A. H., & Cochrane, R. (1999, January). Ex pressed Emotion And Schizophrenia: A Review Of Studies Across Cultures International Review Of Psychiatry. 11(2-3), 219-224.

Hebert, E. B. (2011). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Transformational Leadership, and Effectiveness in School Principals. Dissertation. Atlanta, GA, USA: Georgia State University. Retrieved January 21, 2016, from http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/eps_diss/66

Henson, R., & Roberts, J. (2006). Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Published Research: Common Errors and Some Comment on Improved Practice. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(3), 6.

Hess, J. D., & Bacigalupo, A. C. (2010). The emotionally intelligent leader, the dynamics of knowledge-based organizations and the role of emotional intelligence in organizational development. On the Horizon, 18(3), 222 - 229.

Hey, V., & Leathwood, C. (2009). Passionate attachments: Higher education, policy, knowledge.Emotion and Social Justice. Higher Education Policy, 101–118.

Higgs, M. &. (2003). An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Potential. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 814-823.

Higgs, M., & Aitkin, P. (2003). An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Potential. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 814-823.

Higgs, M., & Aitkin, P. (2003). An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Potential. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 814-823.

Hinkin, T. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of manegment, 967-988.

Hofstde et al, G. H. (2010). Culture and organization :software of the mind: intercultural coorperation and its importance for survival. new york: McGraw- Hill.

Holtgraves, T. (2004). Social desirability and self-reports: Testing models of socially desirable responding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 161–172.

Holtzman, S. (2014). Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling of Noncognitive Assessments using PROC CALIS . SAS Global Forum 2014. Washington, DC.

Holzkamp, K. (1993). Lernen: Subjektwissenschaftliche grundlegung. Frankfurt: a/M: Campus.

Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In R. H. Hoyle, Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 1-15.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 1-55.

Isaacson, R. (1982). The Limbic System. New York: Plenum Press.

Johnson, P., & Duberley, J. (2000). Understanding Management Research. London: Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Jolliffe, I. T. (1986). Principal component analysis. New York: Springer.

Jr. Raymond, M. O., & Little, I. S. (2003). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: self-report versus ability-based measures. Personality and Individual Differences(35), 1893–1902.

Jupp, V. (2006). The Sage Dictionary of Social Research Methods. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kaiser, H. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151.

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Kaufman, B. E. (2014). The historical development of American HRM broadly viewed. Human Resource Management Review(24), 196–218.

Keele, S., & Bell, R. (2008). the factorial valididty of emotional intelligence: An unresolved issue. Personality and individual differences, 487-500.

Kerlinger, F. (1973). Foundations of behavioral research. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Ketchen, D. J., & Bergh, D. (2004). Research Methodology in Strategy and Management. Oxford, UK: Elsevier-JAI.

Ketchen, D. J., & Bergh, D. D. (2004). Research methodology in strategy and manegement. amsterdam: Elsevier.

Khan, S. H., & Ahmed, T. (2013, November 9). Booming business: Retail sector looks to consolidate gains. Retrieved from The Express Tribune: http://tribune.com.pk/story/629347/booming-business-retail-sector-looks-to-consolidate-gains/

Kieffer, K. (1999). An introductory primer on the appropriate use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Research in the Schools, 75-92.

Kline, P. (1994). an easy guide to factor analysis. london: Routledge.

Krishnaswamy, K., Sinakumar, A. I., & Mathirajan, M. (2009). Management Research Methodology (3 ed.). New Delhi: Pearson Education.

Kuhn, T. N. (1972). Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Research. In I. Lakatos, & A. Musgrave, Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (2nd ed., pp. 6-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kumar, R. (2011). Research Methodology: A step by step guide for beginners. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd.

Kunnanatt, J. T. (2008). Emotional intelligence: theory and description A competency model for interpersonal effectiveness. Career Development International, 13(7), 614-629. doi:10.1108/136204308109

Landy, F. J. (2005). Some Historical and Scientific Issues Related to Research on Emotional Intelligence,. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 411-436.

Lang, P. (1994). The varieties of emotional experience: A meditation of James and Lange theory. Psychological Review, 10(1), 211-221.

Lawrence, P. (1985). The history of human resource management in the United States. In R. Walto, & P. Lawrence, HRM: Trends and challenges (pp. 15–34). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Business School Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Thoughts on the relations between emotion and cognition. American Psychologist, 1019-1024.

Leary, M. M., Reilly, M. D., & Brown, F. W. (2009). study of personality preferences and emotional intelligence . Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(5), 421-434.

LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: the mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. London, England: Simon & Schuster.

Leech, N. L., Barrett, K., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: use and interpretation. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Leont’ev, A. N. (1978). Activity, consciousness and personality. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Lewis-Beck. (1994). Factor Analysis & Related Techniques (Vol. 5). (M. S.Lewis-Beck, Ed.) London, Sage Publication, Ltd: Sage Publication, Ltd.

Lewis-Beck,M.S. (1994). Factor Analysis & Related Techniques (Vol. 5). (M. S.Lewis-Beck, Ed.) London, Sage Publication, Ltd: Sage Publication, Ltd.

Locke, E. A. (2005). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 425–431.

MacCann, C., Mathews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. (2004). Consensus scoring and empirical option weighting of performance based emotional intelligence ( EI) tests. Personality and individual differences.

Management Advisory Centre. (2006). Pre-Feasibility Study for Chain of Super Markets in the Country. Islamabad: Planning and Development Division, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved January 12, 2016

Mantaq Systems. (2016). Retail Pakistan: Outlook, Challanges and oppertunities. Lahore: Mantaq System Pvt Limited.

Mark, L. M., & Jolley, J. M. (2013). Research Design Explained. Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

Matthews et al, G. Z. (2002). Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Mayer et al, J. S. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 232-242.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 267-298.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (2000). Selecting a measure of emotional intelligence: the case for.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Finadings, and Implications. Pychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197-215.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence : new ability or eclectic traits? American Pychologist, 63(6), 503-517.

Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. in Salovey, & D. Sluyter, Emtional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications (pp. 3-24). New York: Basic Books.

Mayer, J., Caruso, D., & Salovey. (2000b). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-98.

Mayer, J., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (. (2000a). Emotional intelligence as Zeitgeist, as personality, and as a mental ability. In R. Bar-On, & J. Parker, The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School and in the Work Place. New York (NY): Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

Mayer, J., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (2000b). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 267-98.

Mayo, E. (1945). The social problems of an industrial civilization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

McClelland. (1998). Identifying Competencies with behavioral event interviews. Psychological science, 331-339.

McClelland, D. C. (1999). Identifying competencies with behavioral-event interviews. Psychological Science, 9(5), 331-339.

McDaniel, M. A., Hartman, N., Whetzel, D., & Grubb, W. (2007). Situational judgement tests, response instructions, and validity:A meta analysis. Personal Psychology, 60(1), 63-91.

McDonald, R. (1985). Factor analysis and related methods. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

McDonald, R., & Ho, M. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analysis. Psychological Methods, 64-82.

McEnrue, M., & Groves, K. (2006). Choosing among tests of emotional intelligence: what is the evidence? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9-42.

McGurr, P. T. (2002). The largest retail firms; a comparison of Asia- Europe and Us based retailers. International journal of Retail and disterbution manegement, 145-150.

Mercedes, D. W., & Rossi, G. (2012). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Evaluation of Psychometric Aspects in the Dutch Speaking Part of Belgium,. In D. G. (Ed., Psychology, Selected Papers (pp. 145-172). Shanghai: InTech. Retrieved January 2, 2016, from http://www.intechopen.com/books/psychology-selected-papers/the-bar-on-emotional-quotient-inventory-eq-i-evaluation-of-psychometric-aspects-in-a-flemish-populat

Metro. (2016, January 10). METRO cash and carry. Retrieved from Metro cash and carry Pakistan: https://www.metro.pk

Miller, D., & Form, W. (1951). Industrial sociology. New York: Harper.

Miner, J. (2006). Organizational behavior 2: Essential theories of process and structure. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Mitchell, M., & Jolley, J. (2001). Research design explained. Fort Worth TX: Harcourt college.

Mitchell, M., & Jolley, J. (2001). Research design explained. Fort Worth TX: Harcourt College.

Mitchell, M., & Jolley, J. (2013). Reserach Design Explained (4th ed.). Singapore: Thompson Learning. doi:0-15-507505-5

Morgan, P. (2003). Managing yourself: Coach Yourself To Optimum Emotional Intelligence. (P. E. 2003, Editor) Retrieved February 18, 2009, from www.yourmomentum.com.

Myers, D. (1998). Psychology (5th ed.). NY: Worth Publishers.

Newman, i., & Benz, c. (1998). qualitative-quantitave research methodology: exploring the interactive continuum. carbondale: southern illinois university press.

Niedenthal, P. M., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). Psychology of emotion interpersonal, experimental, and cognitive approaches. New York: Psychology Press.

Nimako, S. G., Azumah, F. K., Donkor, F., & Adu-Brobbey, V. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of service quality dimensions within mobile telephony industry in Ghana. Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, 15(2), 195-215. Retrieved from www.ejise.com

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). psychometric theory. New york : McGraw-Hill.

O’Boyle, E. H. (2010). The relation between Emotional Intelligence and job performance. A metaanalysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

O'Connor, E. l. (1999). The politics of management thought: A case study of the Harvard Business School and the Human Relations schoo. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 117–131.

Olsen, E. M., Slater, s. F., & Hult, G. T. (2005). The importance of structure and process to strategy implementation. Buisiness Horizons, 48(1), 47-54.

Oyserman, D. (2011). Culture as situated cognition: Cultural mindsets, cultural fluency, and meaning making. European Review of Social Psychology, 164-214.

Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., & & Stough, C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1091-1100.

Payne, W. (1985). A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence, Self Integration, Relating to Fear ,Pain and Desire. Cambridge: UMI.

PBIT. (2016). Retail Sector Report. Lahore: Punjab Board of Investment and Trade, Governmnet of Punjab. Retrieved July 20, 2016

Peter, J., Ashkanasyb, N. M., Ha¨rtelb, C. E., & Hooperb, G. S. (2002). Workgroup emotional intelligence Scale development and relationship to team process effectiveness and goal focus. Human Resource Management Review(12), 195–214.

Peterson, I. (1995). Mathematics. Science news, 147(3), 44.

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioral validation of two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality(17), 39-57.

Petrides, K. V., Perez-Conzalez, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition and Emotion, 26–55.

Petrides, K., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence : behavioral validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. Eur. J. Pers. European Journal of Personality, 39-57.

Petrovici, A., & Dobrescu, T. (2014). The role of emotional intelligence in building interpersonal communication skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences(116), 1405 – 1410.

Pett et al, P. (2003). Making Sense of Factor Analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. California: Sage Publications.

Pfeiffer, S. I. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Popular but elusive construct. Roeper Review, 23(3), 138-142. doi:10.1080/02783190109554085

Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In P. R., & K. H., Emotion: Theory, research, and experience. New York.

Popper, K. (1973). Objective knowledge an evolutionary approach. oxford: clarendon press.

Prentic, C., & King, B. E. (2012). Emotional Intelligence in a Hierarchical Relationship: Evidence for Frontline Service Personne. Services Marketing Quarterly, 33(1), 34-48.

Prentice, C., & King, B. (2011). Emotional intelligence and the service performance of casino frontline employees. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 49–66.

Prudon, P. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis as a tool in research using questionnaires: a critique. Comprehensive Psychology, 4(10).

Rajeshwer, C. (2006). Book Summary: The Emotional Intelligent Leader. In K. K.B.S., Developing Emotional Intelligence (First ed., pp. 1-9). Hyderabad: The ICFAI University Press.

Razzaq, F., & Aftab, F. (2015, Jan-Jun). Developing an Indigenous Scale of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Bussiness and Economics, 7(1).

Rietveld, T., & Van hout, R. (1993). statistical techniques for the study of language and language behavior. berlin: mouton de gruyter.

Roth, W.-M. (2007). Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. MIND, CULTURE, AND ACTIVITY, 1-2(14), 40–63.

Roth, W.-M. (2007). Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory . MIND, CULTURE AND ACTIVITY, 14(1-2), 40–63.

Roth, W.-M., Hwang, S., Lee, Y.-J., & Goulart, M. (2005). Participation, learning, and identity: Dialectical perspectives. Berlin: Lehmanns Media.

Rozell, E., Pettijohn, C., & Parker, R. (2001, April). AnEmpirical Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence: the Impact on Management Development. Journal of Management Development, 21(4), 272-289.

Russell, J. A. (1997). The psychology of facial expressions. Cambridge: Cambridge university.

Saberi, M. A. (2012, September). The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Enhancing Intercultural Sensitivity. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Lodon, Great Britian: Brunel Business School, Brunel University.

Sala, E. (2002). Emotional Competence Inventory: Technical manual. Philadelphia, PA: McClelland Center For Research, HayGroup.

Salovey, P. (2006). Epilogue: The agenda for future research. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount, Linking Emotional Intelligence and Performance at Work – Current Research Evidence with Individuals and Groups. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence,. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 14(6), 185-211.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 14(6), 185-211.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Reserach Methods for Bussiness Students. New Delhi: Dorling KindersleymIndia Pvt LtdLicensee of Pearson Education in South Asia.

Schacter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social,and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379–399.

Scheusner, H. (2002). Emotional Intelligence and Non-Leaders in Campus Organizations. Upublished PhD thesis. Blacksburg: Virginia Poly Technic Institute and State university.

Schmitt et al, N. (1991). Research methods in human resources. Cincinnati: South western Pub. Co.

Schumacker, R. E. (1996). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah, NJ.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie. (2009). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. Wiley.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2011). Research Method for Bussiness: A skill building approach (5th ed.). New Delhi: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Sevinc, L. (. (2001). The effect of emotional intelligence on career success: Research on the 1990 graduates of business administration faculty of Istanbul University. Istanbul: Istanbul University.

Sharma, R. (2012). Measuring social and emotional intelligence competencies in the Indian context. Cross Cultural Management, 19(1), 30-47.

Sheldrake, J. (2003). Management Theory (2 ed.). London: Thomson Learning.

Shi, J., & Wang, L. (2007). Validation of emotional intelligence scale in Chinese university students. Personality and Individual Differences(43), 377–387.

Sohaib, O. (2014). Cultural Aspects Of Business-To-Consumer (B2c) E-Commerce: A Comparative Analysis Of Pakistan And Australia . EJISDC, 61(2), 1-18.

Spinoza, B. (1994). L’éthique. Folio: Gallimard.

Statistical Solutions. (2016). Exploratory Factor Analysis. Retrieved June 1st, 2016, from Statistical Solutions: Advancement through Clarity: http://www.statisticssolutions.com/factor-analysis-sem-exploratory-factor-analysis/

Steiner, C. (. (1997). Achieving Emotional Literacy. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Sternberg, R. (2002). Successful intelligence: a new approach to leadership. In R. Riggio, S. Murphy, & F. Pirozzolo, Multiple Intelligences and Leadership (pp. 9-28). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Straub, D., Boudreau, M., & Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13, 380-427.

Stys, Y., & Brown, S. L. (2004). A Review of the Emotional Intelligence Literature and Implications for Corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2016

Suhr, D. (2012). Exploratory Factor Analysis with the World Values Survey. SAS Global Forum 2012, (pp. Paper 331-).

Suhr, D., & Shay, M. (2009 September 1-3). Guidelines for Reliability, Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis. SAS Conference Proceedings: Western Users of SAS Software 2009. San Jose, California.

Suhr., D. (2006). Exploratory or Confirmatory Factor Anlysis? SUGI 31 Proceedings. San Francisco, California.

Suliman, A. M., & Al-Shaikh, F. N. (2007). Emotional intelligence at work: links to conflict and innovation. Employee Relations, 29(2), 208 - 220.

Syed, J., & Ali, F. (2013). Contextual emotional labor: an exploratory of Muslim female employees in Pakistan. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 28(4), 228 - 246.

Tabachnick, B. G. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Takahashi, k., Ohara, N., Antonucci, T., & Akiyamah. (2002). Commonalities and differences in close relationships among the americansand the japanese: a comparison by the individualism/collectism concept. Behavioral development.

Tett, R., & Fox, K. (2006). Confirmatory factor structure of trait emotional intelligence in student and worker samples. Personality and Individual Differences(41), 1155–1168.

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. washington DC: American psychological Association.

Thompson, B., & Daniel, L. (1996). Factor analytic evidence for the construct validity of scores: A historical overview and some guidelines. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(2), 197-208.

Thompson, J. (1988). The psychobiologyof emotions.

Thorndike, E. (1920). Aconstant error in Psychological ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4, 25-29.

Timms, P. (2013). HR2025-Human Resource Mangement in the future: book 1- work, people and HR in 2025 (1st ed.). bookboon.com. doi:978-87-403-0605-5

Tinsley, H. A., & Tinsley, D. (1987). Uses of factor analysis in counseling psychology research. Journal of counseling Psychology, 414-424.

Tischler et al. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality and workplace performance: definitions, models and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 203-18.

Trahair, R. (1984). Elton Mayo: The humanist temper. London: Transactions Publishers.

Tucker, L., & MacCallum, R. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis. Retrieved march 27, 2012, from unc.edu: http://www.unc.edu/~rcm/book/ch7.pdf

Turner, J. H. (2002). Face to face: Toward a sociological theory of interpersonal behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Valentin, C. (2006). Researching human resource development : Emergence of a critical approach to HRD enquiry . International Journal of Training & Development,, 10(1), 17-29.

Van Kleef, G. A., Van Doorn, E. A., Heerdink, M. W., & Koning, L. F. (2011). Emotion is for influence‟. European Review of Social Psychology, 1(22), 114-163.

Van Rooy, D. L., & C., V. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 71–95.

Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: a meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71-95.

Van Rooy, D., Viswesvaran, C., & Pluta, P. (2005). An evaluation of construct validity: what is this thing called emotional intelligence. Human Performance, 18(4), 445-62.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1989). Concrete human psychology. Soviet Psychology, 53–77.

Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological Bulletin(37), 444-445.

Weschler, D. (1958). The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence (4th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Whyte, W. (1965, April). A field in search of a focus. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, pp. 305–322.

Williams, B., Brown, T., & Onsman, A. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 8(3). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/jephc/vol8/iss3/1

Wilmot, S. (1995). Professional values and interprofessional dialogue. Journal of interprofesional care, 9(3), 257-266.

Wilson, M., & Holligan, C. (2013). Performativity, work-related emotions and collective research identities in UK university education departments: an exploratory study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 43(2), 223-241.

Wren, D. &. (2009). The evolution of management thought (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.

Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (. (2002). Can emotional intelligence be schooled? A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 215–231.

Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. .. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, .64–78.

Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, 13(1), 64–78.

Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, 13(1), 64–78.

Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Buissness research methods. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Zikmund, W. G. (2006). Bussiness Research Methods (7th ed.). Singapore: Thompson Learning Inc.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.