US Military Withdrawal from Afghanistan: War and Peace Journalism in Pakistani Media

Ruqiya Anwar, Dr. Muhammad Junaid Ghauri, Riffat Alam


When it comes to reporting on war and conflict, according to Galtung (1986, 1998), there are two conflicting frames, war journalism, and peace journalism. War journalists cover conflict by reporting it in a way that promotes violence, dominance, and an elitist viewpoint. Peace journalists, on the other hand, report proactively on the reasons and solutions to conflicts, providing all sides a voice via responsible media. The present study analyzes how Dawn and the Nation depict US Military Withdrawal from Afghanistan. This study focuses on the war and peace inclination of the Pakistani print media. The model of war and peace journalism proposed by Johan Galtung is used to guide this research (1986).  Peace journalism strives to de-escalate war and violence, promote peace, and offer opportunities for dispute resolution. A quantitative contents analysis was used to examine the two newspapers' coverage of one month from August 01, 2021, to August 31, 2021. The findings of the study revealed that the coverage of the Nation was heavily war-oriented with a percentage of 69.2%, while Dawn’s coverage was peace-oriented with 53.7% of its contents falling in that category.

Full Text:



Allen, T., & Seaton, J. (Eds.). (1999). The media of conflict: War reporting and representations of ethnic violence. Zed Books.

Batool, S., Yasin, Z., & Khurshid, T. (2015). Comparative Study of Peace Process between Pakistan and India in The News, Daily Dawn, and The Times of India: A Case study of'Aman Ki Asha. Journal of Political Studies, 22(2), 511.

Becker, J. 2007, Media, terrorism, and a culture of peace, Media Development 54(3).

Cohen, E. A., Toffler, A., & Toffler, H. (1994). War and anti-war: Survival at the dawn of the 21st century. Foreign Affairs, 73(3), 156.

Dag, H. (2013). Peace journalism or war journalism? A comparative analysis of the coverage of Israeli and Turkish newspapers during the Gaza flotilla crisis (Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University).

Dimitrova, D. V., & Strömbäck, J. (2005). Mission accomplished? Framing of the Iraq War in the elite newspapers in Sweden and the United States. Gazette (Leiden, Netherlands), 67(5), 399-417.

Dimitrova, D. V., & Connolly-Ahern, C. (2007). A tale of two wars: Framing analysis of online news sites in coalition countries and the Arab world during the Iraq war. The Howard Journal of Communications, 18(2), 153-168

Demarest, L., & Langer, A. (2021). Peace journalism on a shoestring? Conflict reporting in Nigeria’s national news media. Journalism, 22(3), 671-688.

Elham, A. Z., Haand, R., & Sadiq, A. War and Peace Journalism: Representation of Conflict on Afghan Soil through Global Media.

Galtung, J. (1999). Conflict transformation by peaceful means: The Transcend method. UN.

Galtung, J. (1998) ‘Peace Journalism: What, Why, Who, How, When, where’, paper presented at the workshop ‘What are Journalists for?’, TRANSCEND, Taplow Court, UK, 3–6 September.

Galtung, J. (2002), “Peace journalism – a challenge”, in Kempf W. and Luostarinen H. (Eds), Journalism and the New World Order, Vol. 2, Nordicom, Gothenburg, pp. 259-272.

Galtung J and Fischer D (2013) high road, low road: Charting the course for peace journalism. In: Galtung J (ed.) Johan Galtung: Pioneer of Peace Research, vol. 5. Berlin: Springer, pp. 95–102

Hanitzsch, T. (2007). Situating peace journalism in journalism studies: A critical appraisal. Conflict & Communication, 6(2).

Hanitzsch, T. (2007). Deconstructing journalism culture: Toward a universal theory. Communication theory, 17(4), 367-385.

Kempf, W. 2007, Peace journalism: A tightrope walk between advocacy journalism and constructive conflict coverage, Conflict and Communication Online 6(2).

Loyn, D. (2007). Good journalism or peace journalism? Conflict & Communication, 6(2).

Lynch, J. mcGoldrick, annabel (2005) Peace Journalism, Gloucestershire.

Lynch, J. (2007). A course in peace journalism. Conflict and communication online, 6(1), 1-20.

Lynch, J. (2013). A global standard for reporting conflict. Routledge.

Lynch, J., & Galtung, J. (2010). Reporting conflict: New directions in peace journalism. UQP.

McGoldrick, A., & Lynch, J. (2006, May). Peace journalism. Sri Lanka Muslim Media Forum.

Ottosen, R. (2011). Galtung’s theory on peace journalism and Norwegian journalism on Afghanistan. Experiments with Peace: Celebrating Peace on Johan Galtung's 80th Birthday, 258.

Ogenga, F. (2012). Is Peace Journalism possible in the'war'against terror in Somalia? How the Kenyan Daily Nation and the Standard represented Operation Linda Nchi. Conflict & Communication, 11(2).

Peleg, S. (2007). In defense of peace journalism: A rejoinder. Conflict & Communication, 6(2).

Riffe, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. G. (1998). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Spencer, G. 2005, The Media and Peace: From Vietnam to the'war on terror', Palgrave Macmillan.

Shinar, D. 2004, Media peace discourse: Constraints, concepts and building blocks, Conflict and Communication Online 3(1-2).

Siraj, S. A. (2010). Framing war and peace journalism on the perspective of talibanisation in pakistan. Media Asia, 37(1), 13-20.

Wolfsfeld, G. (1997). Promoting peace through the news media: Some initial lessons from the Oslo peace process. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2(4), 52-70.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Media & Communication byILMA Universityis licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Copyright ILMA University 2020. All right reserved.

The articles that are published in the journals are distributed under CC BY NC SA license. Users can distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon our articles, even non-commercially, as long as they are credited for the original creation. License Creative Commons.