Workforce Competencies and Digital Transformation: A Literature Survey

Tazeen Imran, Dr. Sara Khan, Hareem Hareem Siddiqui, Dr. Saqlain Raza

Abstract


The 21st century is an era of disruption, vanishing entities lagging behind to transform themselves. Digital transformation therefore has gained much recognition especially in the 21st century, as the technological advancement assists in significantly optimizing business operations, product service and design innovation. Organizations around the world are investing and making constant efforts in digital transformation by updating and upgrading their business processes in order to improve the firm’s performance and achieve competitive advantage. However digital transformation requires the workforce to possess adequate competencies, both for implementation and utilization post implementation, as these technological changes bring intense shifts in the attitude and behaviour of the traditional ways of doing. This paper, therefore, attempts to bridge the gap in literature for the changing needs of today’s workforce competencies that are deemed necessary in the era of digital transformation, by gathering evidences from literature analysis. The paper contributes to the body of literature by directing industry practitioners and researchers to adopt a wider outlook, while undergoing the journey of digital transformation, which encompasses diversity in workforce competencies. The researcher has discussed diversity and digital transformation, with the perspective of what digital transformation needs is what gender diversity offers.

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References


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Akano, I. O. N. (2013). Gender equality in skills development: How to find a balance (pp. 1–7).

Bajpai, N., & Biberman, J. (2021). Digital Transformation and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. January, 1–26.

Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. C. (2009). The global “war for talent.” Journal of International Management, 15(3), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2009.01.002

Boneva, M. (2018). Challenges related to the digital transformation of business companies. Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 101–114.

Butschan, J., Heidenreich, S., Weber, B., & Kraemer, T. (2019). TACKLING HURDLES to DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION - The ROLE of COMPETENCIES for SUCCESSFUL INDUSTRIAL INTERNET of THINGS (IIoT) IMPLEMENTATION. International Journal of Innovation Management, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.1142/S1363919619500361

Dalessandro, C. (2018). Recruitment Tools for Reaching Millennials: The Digital Difference. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918774446

Daley, S. (2021). Women in tech statistics show the industry has a long way to go. Builtin. https://builtin.com/women-tech/women-in-tech-workplace-statistics

Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J. C., & Welser, J. J. (2016). Digital Innovation and Strategic Transformation. IT Professional, 18(6), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2016.115

Denrell, J., & Powell, T. C. (2016). Dynamic Capability as a Theory of Competitive Advantage. In The Oxford Handbook of Dynamic Capabilities (Issue June 2018). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199678914.013.007

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Felsberger, A., Qaiser, F. H., Choudhary, A., & Reiner, G. (2020). The impact of Industry 4.0 on the reconciliation of dynamic capabilities: evidence from the European manufacturing industries. Production Planning and Control, 0(0), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2020.1810765

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Helfat, C. E., & Peteraf, M. A. (2009). Understanding dynamic capabilities: Progress along a developmental path. Strategic Organization, 7(1), 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127008100133

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Hess, T., Matt, C., Benlian, A., & Wiesbock, F. (2016). Options for Formulating a Didital Transformation Strategy. MIS Quarterly Executive, 15(2), 123–139.

Ilvonen, I., Thalmann, S., Manhart, M., & Sillaber, C. (2018). Reconciling digital transformation and knowledge protection: A research agenda. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 16(2), 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2018.1445427

Ismail, M. H., Khater, M., & Zaki, M. (2017). Digital Business Transformation and Strategy: What Do We Know So Far? Manufacturer Article, November 2017, 36. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.36492.62086

Järlström, M., Saru, E., & Vanhala, S. (2018). Sustainable Human Resource Management with Salience of Stakeholders: A Top Management Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(3), 703–724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3310-8

Jedynak, M., Czakon, W., Kuźniarska, A., & Mania, K. (2021). Digital transformation of organizations: what do we know and where to go next? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 34(3), 629–652. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-10-2020-0336

Kane, G. (2019). The Technology Fallacy: People Are the Real Key to DT. Research Technology Management, 62(6), 44–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/08956308.2019.1661079

Kane, G. C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A. N., Kiron, D., & Buckley, N. (2016). Alligning the organization for its digital future. In MIT Sloan Management Review and Delloitte University Press.

Kettunen, P., & Laanti, M. (2017). Future software organizations – agile goals and roles. European Journal of Futures Research, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40309-017-0123-7

Kettunen, P., & Mäkitalo, N. (2019). Future smart energy software houses. European Journal of Futures Research, 7(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-018-0153-9

Kohnke, O. (2017). It’s not just about technology: The people side of organization. Shaping the Digital Enterprise.

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Meshkat, M., & Nejati, R. (2017). Does emotional intelligence depend on gender? A study on undergraduate english majors of three Iranian universities. SAGE Open, 1–8.

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Akano, I. O. N. (2013). Gender equality in skills development: How to find a balance (pp. 1–7).

Bajpai, N., & Biberman, J. (2021). Digital Transformation and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. January, 1–26.

Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. C. (2009). The global “war for talent.” Journal of International Management, 15(3), 273–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2009.01.002

Boneva, M. (2018). Challenges related to the digital transformation of business companies. Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 101–114.

Butschan, J., Heidenreich, S., Weber, B., & Kraemer, T. (2019). TACKLING HURDLES to DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION - The ROLE of COMPETENCIES for SUCCESSFUL INDUSTRIAL INTERNET of THINGS (IIoT) IMPLEMENTATION. International Journal of Innovation Management, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.1142/S1363919619500361

Dalessandro, C. (2018). Recruitment Tools for Reaching Millennials: The Digital Difference. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918774446

Daley, S. (2021). Women in tech statistics show the industry has a long way to go. Builtin. https://builtin.com/women-tech/women-in-tech-workplace-statistics

Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J. C., & Welser, J. J. (2016). Digital Innovation and Strategic Transformation. IT Professional, 18(6), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2016.115

Denrell, J., & Powell, T. C. (2016). Dynamic Capability as a Theory of Competitive Advantage. In The Oxford Handbook of Dynamic Capabilities (Issue June 2018). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199678914.013.007

DiRomualdo, A., El-Khoury, D., & Girimonte, F. (2018). HR in the digital age: how digital technology will change HR’s organization structure, processes and roles. Strategic HR Review, 17(5), 234–242. https://doi.org/10.1108/shr-08-2018-0074

Ebert, C., & Duarte, C. H. C. (2018). DT. IEEE Software, 35(4), 16–21. https://doi.org/10.1109/MS.2018.2801537

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21(10–11), 1105–1121. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0266(200010/11)21:10/11<1105::AID-SMJ133>3.0.CO;2-E

El-Khoury, D. (2017). DT and the world-class HR difference. Strategic HR Review, 16(2), 86–88. https://doi.org/10.1108/shr-01-2017-0001

Felsberger, A., Qaiser, F. H., Choudhary, A., & Reiner, G. (2020). The impact of Industry 4.0 on the reconciliation of dynamic capabilities: evidence from the European manufacturing industries. Production Planning and Control, 0(0), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2020.1810765

Fitzgerald, M., Kruschwitz, N., Bonnet, D., & Welch, M. (2013). Embracing Digital Technology: A New Strategic Imperative | Capgemini Consulting Worldwide. MIT Sloan Management Review, 55(1), 1–13. https://www.capgemini-consulting.com/SMR

Flores, E., Xu, X., & Lu, Y. (2020). Human Capital 4.0: a workforce competence typology for Industry 4.0. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 31(4), 687–703. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMTM-08-2019-0309

Foerster-Metz, U. S., Marquardt, K., Golowko, N., Kompalla, A., & Hell, C. (2018). Digital Transformation and its Implications on Organizational Behavior. Journal of EU Research in Business, 2018, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.5171/2018.340873

Fonseca, P., & Picoto, W. N. (2020). The competencies needed for digital transformation. Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management, 8(2), 53–70. https://doi.org/10.36965/ojakm.2020.8(2)53-70

Gfrerer, A. E., Rademacher, L., & Dobler, S. (2021). Digital Needs Diversity: Innovation and Digital Leadership from a Female Managers’ Perspective. Innovative in Times of Crisis, June, 335–349. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-69380-0_19

Goldman, J. (2017). Nearly half of companies say they don’t have the digital skills they need. Harvard Business School Publishing.

Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D., & Antunes Marante, C. (2021). A Systematic Review of the Literature on Digital Transformation: Insights and Implications for Strategy and Organizational Change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), 1159–1197. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12639

Helfat, C. E., & Peteraf, M. A. (2009). Understanding dynamic capabilities: Progress along a developmental path. Strategic Organization, 7(1), 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127008100133

Henriette, E., Feki, M., & Boughzala, I. (2016). Digital Transformation challenges. Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, 33. http://aisel.aisnet.org/mcis2016http://aisel.aisnet.org/mcis2016/33

Herring, C. (2009). Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : Does Diversity Pay ?: Race , Gender , and the Business Case for Diversity. 74(2), 208–224.

Hess, T., Matt, C., Benlian, A., & Wiesbock, F. (2016). Options for Formulating a Didital Transformation Strategy. MIS Quarterly Executive, 15(2), 123–139.

Ilvonen, I., Thalmann, S., Manhart, M., & Sillaber, C. (2018). Reconciling digital transformation and knowledge protection: A research agenda. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 16(2), 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2018.1445427

Ismail, M. H., Khater, M., & Zaki, M. (2017). Digital Business Transformation and Strategy: What Do We Know So Far? Manufacturer Article, November 2017, 36. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.36492.62086

Järlström, M., Saru, E., & Vanhala, S. (2018). Sustainable Human Resource Management with Salience of Stakeholders: A Top Management Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(3), 703–724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3310-8

Jedynak, M., Czakon, W., Kuźniarska, A., & Mania, K. (2021). Digital transformation of organizations: what do we know and where to go next? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 34(3), 629–652. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-10-2020-0336

Kane, G. (2019). The Technology Fallacy: People Are the Real Key to DT. Research Technology Management, 62(6), 44–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/08956308.2019.1661079

Kane, G. C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A. N., Kiron, D., & Buckley, N. (2016). Alligning the organization for its digital future. In MIT Sloan Management Review and Delloitte University Press.

Kettunen, P., & Laanti, M. (2017). Future software organizations – agile goals and roles. European Journal of Futures Research, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40309-017-0123-7

Kettunen, P., & Mäkitalo, N. (2019). Future smart energy software houses. European Journal of Futures Research, 7(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-018-0153-9

Kohnke, O. (2017). It’s not just about technology: The people side of organization. Shaping the Digital Enterprise.

Kyllonen, P. C. (2013). Soft Skills for the Workplace. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(6), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2013.841516

Lei, Z., & Jing, Y. (2016). Study on Human Resource Reform in the Digital Transformation. Joint International Information Technology, Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Jimec, 471–477. https://doi.org/10.2991/jimec-16.2016.84

Loonam, J., Eaves, S., Kumar, V., & Parry, G. (2018). Towards digital transformation: Lessons learned from traditional organizations. Strategic Change, 27(2), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsc.2185

Mahraz, M. I., Benabbou, L., & Berrado, A. (2019). A systematic literature review of digital transformation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 917–931.

Malinowski, J., Weitzel, T., & Keim, T. (2008). Decision support for team staffing: An automated relational recommendation approach. Decision Support Systems, 45(3), 429–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2007.05.005

Matlin, M. W. (2012). The psychology of women (7th ed.). Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Matt, C., Hess, T., & Benlian, A. (2015). DT Strategies. Business and Information Systems Engineering, 57(5), 339–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-015-0401-5

McCarthy, P., Sammon, D., & Alhassan, I. (2021). Digital Transformation Leadership Characteristics: a Literature Analysis: Journal of Decision Systems, 00(00), 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/12460125.2021.1908934

Mergel, I., Edelmann, N., & Haug, N. (2019). Defining digital transformation: Results from expert interviews. Government Information Quarterly, 36(4), 101385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2019.06.002

Meshkat, M., & Nejati, R. (2017). Does emotional intelligence depend on gender? A study on undergraduate english majors of three Iranian universities. SAGE Open, 1–8.

Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1997.9711022105

Müller, E., & Hopf, H. (2017). Competence Center for the Digital Transformation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Procedia Manufacturing, 11(June), 1495–1500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2017.07.281

Murawski, M., & Bick, M. (2017). Digital competences of the workforce – a research topic? Business Process Management Journal, 23(3), 721–734. https://doi.org/10.1108/BPMJ-06-2016-0126

Nair, K. (2019). Overcoming today’s digital talent gap in organizations worldwide. Development and Learning in Organizations, 33(6), 16–18. https://doi.org/10.1108/DLO-02-2019-0044

Osmundsen, K. S. (2020). Competences for digital transformation: Insights from the Norwegian energy sector. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020-Janua, 4326–4335. https://doi.org/10.24251/hicss.2020.529

Østergaard, C. R., Timmermans, B., & Kristinsson, K. (2011). Does a different view create something new? the effect of employee diversity on innovation. Research Policy, 40(3), 500–509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.11.004

Parida, V., Sjödin, D. R., Lenka, S., & Wincent, J. (2015). Developing global service innovation capabilities :How global manufacturers address the challenges of market heterogeneity. Research Technology Management, 58(5), 35–44. https://doi.org/10.5437/08956308X5805360

Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. Wiley.

Peppard, J., & Ward, J. (2004). Beyond strategic information systems: Towards an IS capability. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 13(2), 167–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2004.02.002

Prentice, C., Dominique Lopes, S., & Wang, X. (2020). Emotional intelligence or artificial intelligence– an employee perspective. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 29(4), 377–403. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1647124

Reis, J., Amorim, M., Melao, N., & Matos, P. (2016). DT : A Literature Review and Guidelines for Future Research. 10th European Conference on Information Systems Management. Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited, 1(March), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77703-0

Schilke, O., Hu, S., & Helfat, C. E. (2018). Quo vadis, dynamic capabilities? A content-analytic review of the current state of knowledge and recommendations for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 12(1), 390–439. https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0014

Schuchmann, D., & Seufert, S. (2015). Corporate Learning in Times of Digital Transformation: A Conceptual Framework and Service Portfolio for the Learning Function in Banking Organisations. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (IJAC), 8(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v8i1.4440

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